The use of a tourniquet is a critical skill, often life-saving, in situations where severe bleeding occurs and cannot be controlled by simpler methods. This article delves into the detailed process of correctly using a tourniquet, a skill that can be the difference between life and death in emergencies.
The first step in using a tourniquet is recognizing when it is necessary. Tourniquets are used when bleeding is severe and cannot be controlled by direct pressure, elevation, or pressure points. Such bleeding is often arterial, indicated by blood that is bright red and spurting. It’s crucial to act quickly as severe blood loss can lead to shock or even death within minutes.
Once the need for a tourniquet is established, it’s important to choose the right type. There are several types of commercial tourniquets available, such as the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) or the SOF Tactical Tourniquet. In the absence of a commercial tourniquet, an improvised one can be made from a band of fabric at least 2 inches wide, like a scarf or a piece of clothing, and a rigid object to use as a windlass, such as a stick or a pen.
The tourniquet should be applied 2 to 3 inches above the wound, but not over a joint. If the wound is on the lower limb, and the location of the wound is close to the groin where a tourniquet cannot be applied effectively, it should be applied to the upper thigh, as high as possible. For an upper limb injury, apply the tourniquet above the wound on the arm. Always place the tourniquet on bare skin, not over clothing.
Once in place, tighten the tourniquet. If using a commercial tourniquet, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for tightening. In general, the tourniquet is tightened by twisting the windlass until the bleeding stops. The aim is to apply enough pressure to stop arterial blood flow to the limb, which can be determined by the cessation of bleeding or the disappearance of a distal pulse.
After tightening, secure the windlass to keep the tourniquet tight. Most commercial tourniquets have a built-in feature to secure the windlass. If an improvised tourniquet is being used, the windlass can be secured in place with another piece of fabric or by tying it against the limb.
It is crucial to note the time when the tourniquet was applied. This can be done by writing on the tourniquet itself if it has a space for time indication or by writing it on a piece of tape and sticking it to the tourniquet. Recording the time is important for medical professionals to know how long the tourniquet has been in place when they take over the care.
Once the tourniquet is applied, do not remove or loosen it until medical help arrives. Removing a tourniquet can lead to a rapid loss of blood and can be more dangerous than leaving it in place.
In conclusion, applying a tourniquet is a procedure that demands urgency and precision. It’s a valuable skill that everyone can benefit from learning, as it can be used in various emergency situations to control severe bleeding. Remember, the use of a tourniquet is a temporary measure, and seeking professional medical help immediately after its application is paramount. Proper application can save a limb, and more importantly, a life.